Selections can be made more precise or inclusive by combining them with logical operators, including the boolean and, or, and not. The boolean and selects only those items that have both (or all) of the named properties, and the boolean or selects items that have either (or any) of them. Venn diagrams show that and selects the areas of overlap, while or selects both areas.
Selection Operator/Modifier Table
Selection operators and modifiers are listed below. The dummy variables s1 and s2 stand for selection-expressions such as "chain a" or "hydro."
|nots1||!s1||Selects atoms that are not included in s1
PyMOL> select sidechains, ! bb
|s1 and s2||s1 & s2||Selects atoms included in both s1 and s2
PyMOL> select far_bb, bb &farfrm_ten
|s1 or s2||s1 | s2||Selects atoms included in either s1 or s2
PyMOL> select all_prot, bb | sidechain
|s1 in s2||s1 in s2||Selects atoms in s1 whose
identifiers name, resi, resn, chain and segi all match atoms in s2
PyMOL> select same_atms, pept in prot
|s1 like s2||s1 l. s2||Selects atoms in s1 whose identifiers name and resi match atoms in s2
PyMOL> select similar_atms, pept like prot
|s1 gap X||s1 gap X||Selects all atoms whose van der Waals radii are separated from the van der Waals radii of s1 by a minimum of X Angstroms.
PyMOL> select farfrm_ten, resi 10 gap 5
|s1 around X||s1 a. X||Selects atoms with centers within X Angstroms of the center of any atom in s1
PyMOL> select near_ten, resi 10 around 5
|s1 expand X||s1 e. X||Expands s1 by all atoms within X Angstroms of the center of any atom in s1
PyMOL> select near_ten_x, near10 expand 3
|s1 within X of s2||s1 w. X of s2||Selects atoms in s1 that are within X Angstroms of the s2
PyMOL> select bbnearten, bb w. 4 of resi 10
|byres s1||br. s1||Expands selection to complete residues
PyMOL> select complete_res, br. bbnear10
|byobject s1||bo. s1||Expands selection to complete objects>
PyMOL> select near_obj, bo. near_res
|neighbor s1||nbr. s1||Selects atoms directly bonded to s1
PyMOL> select vicinos, neighbor resi 10
Logical selections can be combined. For example, you might select atoms that are part of chain a, but not residue number 125:
PyMOL> select chain a and (not resi 125) # selects atoms that are part of # chain a, but not # residue number 125. PyMOL> select (name cb or name cg1 or name cg2) and chain A # These two # selections are PyMOL> select name cb+cg1+cg2 and chain A # equivalent. # select c-beta's, # c-gamma-1's and # c-gamma-2's # that are # in chain A.
Like the results of groups of arithmetic operations, the results of groups of logical operations depend on which operation is performed first. They have an order of precedence. To ensure that the operations are performed in the order you have in mind, use parentheses:
byres ((chain a or (chain b and (not resi 125))) around 5)
PyMOL will expand its logical selection out from the innermost parentheses.