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## Semion formalism for spin and qubit systems: Non-Markovian treatment

Using semion substitution for spin variables we perform an ab initio derivation of effective action for an open quantum two-level system. For this purpose, we introduce, by using the Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation a two-time complex quantum field which average value plays the role of the Green's function for the spin variables. The field thus introduced allows us to develop a diagram technique in a standard way. The proposed formalism is used to study a spin embedded into an Ohmic reservoir as an example of the spin-boson model. Non-Markovian effects in this system are analyzed.

We consider the impact of a weakly coupled environment comprising a light scalar field on the open dynamics of a quantum probe field, resulting in a master equation for the probe field that features corrections to the coherent dynamics, as well as decoherence and momentum diffusion. The light scalar is assumed to couple to matter either through a nonminimal coupling to gravity or, equivalently, through a Higgs portal. Motivated by applications to experiments such as atom interferometry, we assume that the probe field can be initialized, by means of external driving, in a state that is not an eigenstate of the light scalar-field–probe system, and we derive the master equation for single-particle matrix elements of the reduced density operator of a toy model. We comment on the possibilities for experimental detection and the related challenges, and highlight possible pathways for further improvements. This derivation of the master equation requires techniques of nonequilibrium quantum field theory, including the Feynman-Vernon influence functional and thermo field dynamics, used to motivate a method of Lehmann-Symanzik-Zimmermann-like reduction. In order to obtain cutoff-independent results for the probe-field dynamics, we find that it is necessary to use a time-dependent renormalization procedure. Specifically, we show that non-Markovian effects following a quench, namely the violation of time-translational invariance due to finite-time effects, lead to a time-dependent modulation of the usual vacuum counterterms.

Some of the simplest modifications to general relativity involve the coupling of additional scalar fields to the scalar curvature. By making a Weyl rescaling of the metric, these theories can be mapped to Einstein gravity with the additional scalar fields instead being coupled universally to matter. The resulting couplings to matter give rise to scalar fifth forces, which can evade the stringent constraints from local tests of gravity by means of so-called screening mechanisms. In this talk, we derive evolution equations for the matrix elements of the reduced density operator of a toy matter sector by means of the Feynman-Vernon influence functional. In particular, we employ a novel approach akin to the LSZ reduction more familiar to scattering-matrix theory. The resulting equations allow the analysis, for instance, of decoherence induced in atom-interferometry experiments by these classes of modified theories of gravity.

The Majorana representation for spin operators enables efficient application of field-theoretical methods for the analysis of spin dynamics. Moreover, a wide class of spin correlation functions can be reduced to Majorana correlations of the same order, simplifying their calculation. For the spin-boson model, direct application of this method in the lowest order allows for a straightforward computation of the transverse-spin correlations, however, for the longitudinal-spin correlations it apparently fails in the long-time limit. Here we indicate the reason and discuss, how this method can be used as a convenient and accurate tool for generic spin correlations. Specifically, we demonstrate that accurate results are obtained by avoiding the use of the longitudinal Majorana fermion, and that correlations of the remaining transverse Majorana fermions can be easily evaluated using an effective Gaussian action.

The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.

Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.